The Guide to the Local Way of Life on Cape Ann & Boston’s North Shore

Earth Week Green Crab Risotto

Earth Week Green Crab Risotto


The good news here is that for pennies we have an almost infinite local source for making crab risotto, etouffee, gumbo, soupe de poisson, cioppino, and bouilliabaisse, any number of wonderful fish dishes made especially delicious with local crab stock at a cost of almost nothing. More good news: the crab risotto you serve your family does the ocean a world of good.  

The bad news is that the source of all this goodness involves an invasive species that threaten — possibly on one hand’s number of years — to destroy shellfish beds from Cape Ann to Canada.

No more white cardboard boxes brimming with fried clams. No more plump steamers bathed in butter. No more wild mussels shining in white wine, parsley, and garlic.

Green crabs (Carcinus maenas), native to central Norway, the Baltic Sea, and a small part of Iceland, arrived here most likely as ship ballast as early as 1810. DNA tracing reveals subsequent invasions, maybe as ship ballast, or nestled into seaweed used for packing, or shipped aquaculture. The green crab now makes appearances around the world. They own the Eastern seaboard as far south as South Carolina and as far north as Nova Scotia. They have infiltrated the Pacific coast from Baja, California to Alaska, and far as Australia, earning the dubious accolade as one of the 100 most invasive species in the world.  

One green crab can eat forty half-inch clams a day, or thirty small oysters. A half-acre wild mussel bed in Plum Island Sound that locals considered an easy take for a bushel of mussels is “gone” according to retired Rowley shellfish constable Jack Grundstrom. Green crabs also destroy native eel grass, a critical nursery for marine life, by burrowing into the mud and shredding the grasses at their base.

Dr. Brian Beal, professor of Marine Biology at the University of Maine at Machias, sites green crabs’ almost amazing tolerance for temperature and salinity fluctuations. Adult crabs can even live out of water for up to ten days at summer temperatures. On the crustacean’s awesome vitality, Beal’s green crab paper presented at a Maine summit, states, “gregarious behavior encourages sexual encounter rates.” Green crabs reproduce like mad.

Grundstrom explained a popular theory on why the green crabs, after making trouble for centuries, are now such a critical problem.  

“There had been a theory circulating for years that clams did very well after a harsh winter, believing that those hard conditions took a “skim” off the mud flats, making it easier for the clams to burrow.” Now people believe that the clams did better after harsh winters because the green crabs didn’t, giving the clams a break for a couple of years.

This little bastard is after your clams.

This little bastard is after your clams.

The current theory is, Grundstrom says, that a new strain of green crabs can withstand even lower temperatures. The new strain is crossbreeding with the old crabs, and able to survive harsher conditions.

Green crabs have traditionally been fished solely for bait, but people have become more desperate for a market that will absorb more of this biblical species. Ann Molloy from Neptune’s Harvest, the branch of Ocean Crest in Gloucester that produces fertilizer from fish products, says that green crabs have too much sand in them for Neptune’s Harvest to process.

“We tried, but they clogged our screens too fast. At some point if we open a crab shell drying and grinding plant here, we could take them all. We applied for a Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant for that, but we didn’t get it. We haven’t given up hope yet, and at some point we’re hoping to still move forward with that project.”

A few years ago Senator Bruce Tarr secured $133,000 from the federal government as an emergency stop gap measure, buying back green crabs from fishermen, thus assuring someone will be catching them. But these measures aren’t enough at this point to control the population. The industry is looking for a market, a need — a great recipe — for which the main ingredient is green crabs. A recipe people will want to make often.  

Voila! The Green Crab Cookbook, a collection of wonderful things to do with green crabs and their roe, assembled by the Green Crab Research & Development Team, and recently featured by Florence Fabricant in The New York Times. The team has traveled to Venice, Italy, where a close cousin of our green crabs is considered a delicacy, to understand how to harvest green crabs as soft shells, and how to enjoy their roe, called masinette.

Local photographer and videographer Nubar Alexanian has made a film about the green crab crisis (see below), Recipe for Disaster, which will be shown in Rockport on Friday, April 26th, at the Little Art Cinema. The book will be available for sale at the event.

The Green Crab Cookbook includes my recipe for Green Crab Taramosalata, a bread-based dip made with green crab roe. Below I’m sharing my green crab stock recipe, with which I went on to make crab risotto. This was honestly the most delicious stock I’ve made — sweet and complex, and loaded with a pleasant seafood flavor.

Green Crab Stock

[makes 6 quarts]


  • 4 tablespoons olive oil

  • 2 bunches celery, with the leaves, about 1 pound, roughly chopped

  • 1 large red onion, roughly chopped

  • 1 small head fennel, cut into 1/2” slices

  • 12 corn cobs (optional)

  • 2 bay leaves

  • salt

  • 1 tablespoon Old Bay seasoning

  • approximately 3 quarts water

  • 2 cups white wine

  • 2 dozen green crabs


  1. Rinse crabs well in cold water. I recommend doing this outside in a large bucket. Just fill the bucket with water and throw your crabs in. Stir well, and leave them in the bucket until your stock is boiling.

  2. In a large stock pot or lobster pot heat the olive oil to medium. Add the celery, onion, and fennel. Lower heat, and cook until vegetables are soft, about 15 minutes.  

  3. Add the corn cobs if using, the salt, bay leaves and Old Bay and stir well, tossing the vegetables well with the seasoning. Allow to cook for 5 more minutes, or until the onions just begin to darken.

  4. Add the water and wine, and bring to a boil. Let simmer for 10-15 minutes to integrate the flavors, particularly the corn cobs.

  5. Bring stock back to a hard boil. Bring the crabs into the kitchen, and scoop them into the boiling stock.

  6. Allow to cook at a strong simmer/low boil for 45 minutes. Let cool, and spoon out the cooked crabs and as much of the vegetables as you can. Strain the remaining cooled broth through cheesecloth. Pour into jars or plastic containers for storing or freezing.

Crab Risotto

[serves 6]


  • 6 cups green crab stock

  • 1 T butter

  • 1 T olive oil

  • 1/2 red onion, chopped

  • 3 small carrots, diced, about 4 ounces

  • 1 small banana pepper, or 1/2 a green pepper, seeded and diced

  • 1 small red hot pepper, 1/2 ounce, diced (optional)

  • 1 1/2 cups or 12 ounces Arborio rice

  • red pepper flakes

  • salt and pepper

  • 3 small tomatoes, seeded and chopped

  • 1 pound crab meat (1/2 - 3/4 cup reserved for garnish if you like)

  • juice from 1-2 lemons or to taste

  • 1/2 cup toasted slivered almonds

  • 1/2 cup chopped fresh dil


  1. In a medium sauce pan bring the stock to a simmer.

  2. In a large saute pan heat butter and olive oil together on medium heat. When butter is melted and bubbling, add onion, carrots and peppers. Let cook for 8-10 minutes over medium heat until softened.

  3. Add rice, and stir well, cooking until the rice begins to crackle and just begin to turn lightly brown. Season with salt, pepper, and red pepper flakes.

  4. Ladle in 1 cup of the hot broth into the rice, and stir until it is all absorbed.  

  5. Add the chopped tomato, and then ladle in another cup of stock. Stir until the stock is absorbed, and then continue to ladle in the stock, stirring each addition until it is absorbed. This usually takes 20-25 minutes.

  6. Taste the rice to make sure there is no “crunchiness” to it at all. You want it to be creamy, but not mushy. Stir in the fresh lemon juice. Serve in warm bowls garnished with the reserved crab, toasted almonds and chopped dill.

▶︎ Learn more about the Green Crab R&D Project and purchase the book here. If you’re interested in making this or any other recipe in the book, contact the Green Crab R&D Project for where to purchase green crabs.

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